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It can improve suppressing anger, impulse control, consideration of others and responsibility in drug abusers. Also resilience training increases the hardiness in these patients and their challenge, commitment and control will be strengthened. We thank all the individuals who participated in this research.

Also we thank the welfare office of Sari and substance abuse treatment centers that cooperated in the research. There is no financial disclosure. This article is the result of a research proposal which was supported by Student Research Committee of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. Conflicts of Interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Addict Health v. Addict Health. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 9; Accepted Oct Abstract Background The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of resilience training upon ego-control and hardiness of the addicted persons.

Methods This was a semi-experimental study with pretest and posttest control groups which was conducted in Sari, Iran, during Conclusion Resilience training is effective upon the rate of ego-control and self-restraint and hardiness. Keywords: Resilience, Hardiness, Illicit drug users, Substance use disorders. Introduction The increasing drug dependency among the people has raised a worldwide concern.

Methods The present research is a semi-experimental study. The aims of the sessions were as follows: Session 1: to become familiar with concepts, structure, stages, the method of program execution and duties. Results Box test was done to survey the homogeneity assumption of variance and covariance matrices. Table 1 The equality assumption of variances error and regression homogeneity assumption.


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Open in a separate window. Table 2 The mean and standard deviation SD scores of pretest and posttest for experimental and control groups.

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SD: Standard deviation. Table 3 Partial eta squared Eta based on Wilkes lambda test for combinational variable the effectiveness of resilience training. Table 4 The analysis of covariance results for hardiness and ego-control variables based on experimental and control groups.

Resilience - The Three C's of Psychological Resilience

Table 5 Covariance statistical analysis of experimental and control groups upon the rate of ego-control and hardiness. Discussion The use of narcotic drugs has confirmed the decrease in the rate of ego-control and hardiness. Conclusion Resilience training is effective upon the rate of ego-control and self-restraint. Acknowledgments We thank all the individuals who participated in this research. Footnotes Conflicts of Interest The Authors have no conflict of interest. Estimating population size of drug and alcohol abusers in Iran Tehran, Iran: Sepidbarg; In Persian.

Client-level coverage of needle and syringe program and high-risk injection behaviors: A case study of people who inject drugs in Kermanshah, Iran. Prevalence of mental disorders among high-school students in Iran: A systematic review. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry. Drug use prevalence among students of universities of medical sciences in Tehran.

Journal of Research Addiction. The prevalence of drug abuse among university students in Tehran. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol. Major increases in opioid analgesic abuse in the United States: Concerns and strategies.

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Drug Alcohol Depend. Keyes CL. Complete mental health: An agenda for the 21st century. Flourishing: Positive Psychology and the Life Well-lived. United Nations of ficeon Drugsand Crime. World drug report [Online]. Zakariaei M, Mokhtarian H. Introduction to the economy and the illegal drug trade.

Tehran, Iran: Society and Culture Publication; Comparison of personality traits based on temperament and character inventory TCI in opiate and stimulant abusers. Fridell M, esse M. Personality disorders in substance abusers. Evidence based practices? Challenges in substance abuse treatment.


  • Salvatore R. Maddi.
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Helsinki, Finland: NAD-publication; Hesse M, Pedersen MU. Antisocial personality disorder and retention: A systematic review. International Journal for Therapeutic and Supportive Organizations. Personality disorder factors predict recovery of employment functioning among treated cocaine abusers. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. Personality traits and vulnerability or resilience to substance use disorders. Trends Cogn Sci. Ego-control and ego-resiliency: Generalization of self-report scales based on personality descriptions from acquaintances, clinicians, and the self.

J Res Pers. Maddi SR. The story of hardiness: Twenty years of theorizing, research, and practice. The Praeger Handbook on Stress and Coping. Owings Mills, MD: Praeger; Hardiness as the existential courage to grow through searching for meaning.

Effectiveness of Resilience Training on Ego-control and Hardiness of Illicit Drug Users

The experience of meaning in life: Classical perspectives, emerging themes, and controversies. Hardiness leads to meaningful growth through what is learned when resolving stressful circumstances. Meaning in positive and existential psychology. In: Maddi SR, editor. Hardiness as the existential courage to turn stresses into growth opportunities. In: Leontiev DA, editor.

Motivation, consciousness and self-regulation. The personality construct of hardiness, III: Relationships with repression, innovativeness, authoritarianism, and performance. J Pers. Eid, J.

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Laberg Eds. Springfield, Il: Charles C. Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist.

Hardiness: The courage to grow from stresses - Semantic Scholar

Violanti, D. Dunning Eds. Human Performance. British Journal of Health Psychology.


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Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research.